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Teodor M. Abstract 1 Sam 15 is discussed as a study case for dating holy war traditions in the so- called Deuteronomistic History to the post-exilic period. In the past, the relation between the prophet and the king as epitomized in 1 Sam 15 weighed in ascribing the chapter to a prophetic tradition1.

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The text emphasizes the role played by Samuel in ordering to Saul to punish the Amalekites and then in rebuking the unfaithful king. But a controversy re- mains about the dating of this passage. While the German school Dietrich or Veijola dated the pre-dating minneapolis Deuteronomist in the exile period toward the mid-6th cent. I thank Dr. Philippe Guil- laume and Maria Băncilă for suggestions and correcting my English. David und die Entstehung seiner Dynastie nach der deuteronomistischen Darstellung, Suomalainen Tiedeakatemia, Helsinki,p.

So 1 Sam 15 could be an early account or a late narrative that uses an- cient ideological elements. Carly Crouch, for example, took into consideration preeminently the 7th cent.

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Rather than an allegedly pre- Dtr original tradition, I consider a late post-exilic redaction more likely. The question is: what role did this narrative play in post-exilic Yehud? Veijola, Die ewige Dynastie, pp. Jeremy M. The written tradition must have a formative role in the community, so to evalu- ate the holy war tradition, one needs to analyze the ethnic elements that ap- peared in the account and their support for extra- and intra-relations that consti- tute the post-exilic community.

This low percentage 5 percent could reflect the concept of the small remnant represented by the Pre-dating minneapolis returnees from the exile.

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Thompson ed. The Amalekites are doomed forever, the Kenites live no more in their midst and are friends of the Israelites. As a parenthesis: the Septuagint, usually better and older in 1 Sam than the Masoretic Text, misunderstood in v.

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In the post-exilic community the relations with the Edomites are set in new light, because after the Edomites advanced in the south of Judaea as reflected in the book of Obadiah.

The status of the territorial unit later named Idumea 4th cent.

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BCE is unclear between until BCE, but this period where the mixed popu- lation of Arabs, Edomites, Jews and even Arameans was probably part of the Yehud, until it became a separate province under Artaxerxes 1. The Amalekites appear mainly in the early history and although they are not mentioned outside the Bible, they must have been a real tribal group with nomadic background.

But there are important exceptions, which attest to an evident role during the post-exilic period. If this is an accurate piece of information contemporary with the Jerusalem priestly circle that wrote the Chronicles,13 in the 4th pre-dating minneapolis. The Kenites too are doomed, if we accept B. According to 1 Sam there were three different regions of Negeb: the Negeb of Judah, the Negeb of Jerehmeel and the Negeb of the Kenites, suggesting an association of Judah and Jerahmeel, a tribe included also in the Judahite genealogies, with the Kenites.

There are also other examples of Kenites integrated into the people of Israel but 14 Carey A. On the process from self- identification until the definition of the enemies, the Kenites have to move down and to be completely separated from the Amalekites. Other arguments Other issues may be added.

All these expressions actually illustrate a pan-Israelite concept. But this claim raises serious problems.

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For almost years Israel Land of Omri and Judah Bet David existed side by side with their own identity markers even specific dialects as attested in the epigraphic records. It would be illogical to imagine first, in the pre-monarchic time, a pan-Israelite conception as in Judg 5 — Israel pre-dating minneapolis a category for the whole peopleand then a dichotomy 18 The first who proposed the so-called Kenite hypothesis the Kenite origins of Yahwism was Bernhard STADE, Geschichte des Volkes Israel, G.

In- stead the pan-Israelite ideology seems to be a late idea. Finkelstein argued that this pan-Israelite conscience could not have been developed prior towhen a massive emigrant wave from the northern kingdom settled down in the south, bringing with them specific traditions.

Pre-dating minneapolis tends to place it especially during the reign of king Hezekiah We shall return to this statement. The observation of von Soden should be turned the other way round: neither Israel might have had an ethnic concept about people as a whole, because the proof pre-dating minneapolis are late post-exilic. Klopfenstein ed. Speiser shows that in Akkadian there is no trace nu se întâlnește cu nimeni the West-Semitic pair ʿam and ʾiš.

The Standard or Classic Hebrew had been deemed as the spoken language of pre-dating minneapolis pre-exilic period, but this statement was again challenged by Knauf28, who con- sidered Biblical Hebrew an artificial language from the post-exilic period.

Aradand it is also attested pre-dating minneapolis Moabite and Ammonite. Lachish and constantly in the Hebrew Bible Ottilien, DiTh 33pp. Against Gary A.

In fact, the relation between the two versions should be deemed chronological: in the 4th cent.

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Cross argued and this could represent the probable date pre-dating minneapolis the rewriting of the biblical materials. Other holy war accounts I propose a similar pattern for understanding other holy war accounts. We have already discussed Judg 5 that was traditionally considered one of the oldest texts in the Hebrew Bible, but that turned out to be as well a post-exilic literary unit.

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Judg 5 pre-dating minneapolis with Judg 4 can function as a program for emic reality in the people of Israel: it is an apology for the effectiveness of only two tribes in Judg 4 Zebulun and Naphtalithe integration of another four tribes as supporters Ephraim, Benjamin, Machir, Issacharand the rebuke but not punishment of another four tribes Reuben, Gilead, Dan, Asher in Judg 5. In the same pre-dating minneapolis the boundaries with the outside are set: curse for the people of Meroz pre-dating minneapolis The enemies are the Canaanites Jabin as king of Canaan, resident in Hazor and Sisera associated with the goyim.

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This narrative might illustrate a Galilean post-exilic Israelite program for self- identity counterpoising Judah.

I do not suggest that these accounts were invented afresh in the post- exilic period.

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Rather, I suggest that they were compiled or written down then because they had new meanings for the community. It was not incidental that among the returnees from the exile there were Benjaminites Ezr ; and Jericho and Ai, the prominent cities of the holy war tradition about the con- quest are set in Benjamin Josh ; Ai is near Bethel which belongs also in Josh to Benjamin. It is not a forgery, an invented histo- ry, but a programmatic description of self-identity using the literary genre of a historical narrative.

Cazul din 1 Sam 15 Plecând de la faptul că încă există o diversitate de opinii ale cercetătorilor despre aşa-zisa Istorie Deuteronomistă, este studiat capitolul 15 din 1 Samuel 1 Regicare reprezintă una dintre cele mai interesante naraţiuni biblice despre războiul sfânt şi ḥerem distrugerea totală. Dacă pre-dating minneapolis germană recunoştea în 1 Sam o redactare târzie profetică pre-dating minneapolis perioada exilului, către jumătatea sec. Pentru a formula o propunere pentru datare, sunt analizate noţiunile prezente în 1 Sam: poporul lui Israel, Iuda, amaleciţii şi cheniţii.

De altfel, numărul mic al locuitorilor pro- vinciei Iudeea este atestat şi de arheologie.

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Amaleciţii sunt menţionaţi doar în Biblie, apărând în special în istoria timpurie a Israelului. Totuşi, după 1 Cr 1 Paral 4, 43 des- cendenţi amaleciţi sunt menţionaţi şi în perioada târzie. Şi cheniţii apar în istoria veche, dar nu lipsesc nici în perioada post-exilică: aşa cum atestă 1 Cr 1 Paral 2, 55 şi Neh Neem 3, 14, sunt menţionaţi descendenţi cheniţi clanul Bet Rechab în această perioa- dă. Sunt aduse alte trei serii de argumente. Cântecul Deborei îl menţionează Datând cameramanul 5, 13iar opinia clasică a cercetători- lor plasa această piesă literară în straturile cele mai vechi ale Bibliei ebraice.

Totuşi ar fi ciudat ca numele de Israel să fie iniţial aplicat general întregului popor, apoi restrâns doar pre-dating minneapolis regatul nordic, iar apoi iarăşi generalizat. Finkelstein crede că de fapt conştiinţa pan-israelită apare pre-dating minneapolis, în perioada domniei lui Iezechia după îdHr.

În al doilea rând, deşi au iscat controverse, s-au formulat o serie de rezerve cu privire la datarea clasică a Deuteronomului primar, cel pe baza căruia este formulată teologia din Istoria Deuteronomistă.

Pakkala crede că el ar proveni tot din perioada exilică-post exilică. Al treilea argument este lingvistic: Biblia ebraică foloseşte o grafie pentru sufixul pronominal de persoana III masculin singular w spre diferenţă de uzualul h din epigrafia din timpul monarhiei.

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Şi aceasta ar indica redactarea în perioada post-exilică. Un model similar poate fi aplicat, în opinia autorului, şi altor texte despre războiul sfânt, precum Jud şi Ios 6. Aceasta nu înseamnă că naraţiunile sunt create în întregime în perioada post-exilică, ci doar că acum au fost redactate pentru a servi descrierii programatice a identităţii comunităţii religioase.