Corpus Juris Patrimonii. Upon finding out the true origin of the bracelet pair weighing grams, a New York firm notified the Romanian judicial agencies, providing them with the pictures, invoices and an expertise report of both bracelets. His work focuses on the inter-relations between antiquities trafficking, cultural destruction and political violence in the Cyprus conflict and the Syrian civil war; the global trade in antiquities and open data analysis. We would like to thank warmly all those involved in this project, including the European Commission, expert ICOM members, law enforcement agencies, State administrations, intergovernmental organizations and research institutions, whose cooperation has been vital in bringing this publication to fruition. Totuşi, mulţi manageri şi profesionişti adesea se bazează pe criterii simpliste pentru a ajuta la trasarea strategiilor de computerizare, cum ar fi: 1.

Unii credeau că metodele lor de măsurare a productivităţii nu erau adecvate, alţii pretindeau că mărimea capitalului investit în calculatoare era încă insuficientă pentru a avea consecinţe evidente asupra statisticilor economice naţionale, iar alţii pur şi simplu spuneau că efectele erau subestimate. Existau şi voci care considerau că managementul defectuos este o cauză esenţială a paradoxului productivităţii. Nu puţini au fost însă şi cei care au văzut în paradoxul productivităţii un important fenomen social.

În timp ce ratele specifice de creştere a productivităţii muncii variază în anii luaţi în considerare, şi într-adevăr variază în cadrul sectoarelor economice, tendinţa generală de reducere a ratelor de creştere a productivităţii muncii măsurate în ultimele două decenii este acceptată de economişti.

O serie de schimbări ţin de proliferarea şi investiţiile masive în sisteme de computere şi telecomunicaţii. A avut loc o intensă campanie de achiziţii şi o campanie de computerizare crescândă în firmele mari care începe să se vadă în investiţiile cumulative în tehnologie într-o măsură semnificativă. Sistemele de calcul şi telecomunicaţiile din ce în ce mai moderne pot oferi multe avantaje faţă de sistemele tradiţionale sau mai vechi.

Se va rezolva prin căi optimizate de măsurare a productivităţii şi de fapt printr-o creştere evidentă a investiţiilor în sisteme de calcul. Astfel de practici de muncă includ generarea de către manageri a mai multor rapoarte bine detaliate cu ajutorul sistemelor informatice, autorii făcând numeroase ciorne intermediare ale manuscriselor, oamenii având dificultăţi cu sisteme de calculatoare care nu funcţionează bine etc.

Rapoartele pot ajuta managerii să fie mai încrezători în luarea anumitor decizii şi măsuri, manuscrisele revizuite de mai multe ori pot fi ameliorate ş.

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REVISTA de INFORMATICĂ SOCIALĂ - Journal of Social Informatics ...

Există câteva explicaţii sociale pentru paradoxul productivităţii. Şi anume: a multe organizaţii îşi dezvoltă sistemele în moduri care duc la o mare cantitate de eşecuri de implementare; b puţine organizaţii îşi proiectează sisteme care efectiv să faciliteze munca oamenilor; c se subestimează substanţial modul în care munca calificată trebuie să extragă valoare din sistemele computerizate.

Luate împreună, aceste observaţii sugerează că multe organizaţii pierd valoare potenţială din modul în care aplică computerizarea. Totuşi datele de la nivelul firmelor individuale arată variaţii substanţiale de la firmă la firmă Brynjolfsson şi Hitt, p. Există dovezi care arată că firmele care au avut o politică de computerizare intensivă cu practici organizaţionale adecvate sunt mai productive decât media, în timp ce firmele care nu se organizează eficient se află în dr ph phil internet dating firmelor care nu s-au dotat intensiv cu sisteme de calcul.

Brynjolfsson şi Hitt. Rezolvarea paradoxului productivităţii se va face probabil în viitor. Problema în sine ne face să credem că strategiile curente de computerizare nu produc în mod automat şi imediat beneficiile economice şi sociale scontate într-un mare număr de cazuri.

În particular, tehnologia singură, chiar de foarte înaltă calitate, nu este suficientă pentru a crea valoare economică sau socială. Discuţia oferă un punct de pornire pentru un interesant set de studii şi teorii asupra modurilor în care computerizarea eficientă depinde de atenţia sporită acordată organizării şi practicilor la locul de muncă.

Subiectul va fi discutat pe larg pe parcursul articolului. În ultimii ani însă oameni care nu sunt specialişti tehnici au achiziţionat sisteme informatice pentru a le folosi acasă. Era Internetului, în special accesul public la Internet, ridică probleme legate de munca la domiciliu, comunicarea acasă, divertismentul, accesul la informaţii medicale şi alte utilizări personale.

Acestea sunt fenomene semnificative, dar diferă de subiectul pe care dorim să-l scoatem în evidenţă.

World Spirituality

Ele fac 7 parte din informatica socială, dar deschid diferite căi de analiză care necesită studii şi înţelegere aprofundate vezi, de exemplu, Anderson şi alţii, ; Kahin şi Keller, Există un număr de studii în care oamenii încearcă să răspundă la această ultimă întrebare, dacă viaţa la locul de muncă se va ameliora pentru funcţionari, ingineri, manageri ş.

Nu exista un efect simplu, direct. O mare parte din trăsăturile schimbărilor depindeau de puterea relativă a angajaţilor. De exemplu, funcţionarii se situau mai puţin bine, în medie, decât profesioniştii.

Puterea ocupaţională a jucat un rol important în mediatizarea şi trasarea căilor prin care s-a realizat restructurarea locurilor de muncă prin introducerea calculatorului vezi Kling,Attewell, ; Iacono şi Kling, Se examinau de asemenea şi alte seturi de întrebări. În ce măsură organizaţiile erau centralizate Existau multe opinii care spuneau că sistemele de calculatoare vor permite managerilor situaţi la nivele înalte ale conducerii să aibă informaţii mult mai detaliate şi aproape în timp real despre operaţiunile la locul de muncă cum ar fi activităţile desfăşurate în raioanele magazinelor, în birourile editoriale, în sălile de clasă şi că organizaţiile vor deveni mai centralizate.

Alţii susţineau că vor deveni mai descentralizate. Eşecul analitic al determinismului tehnologic este una dintre consecinţele durabile şi interesante din cadrul cercetărilor de informatică socială.

Această încadrare este o cerbung partea 26 faţă de care specialiştii din domeniul informaticii sociale sunt sceptici.

Iar acest tip de anchete contextuale ilustrează modurile în care cercetătorii din domeniul informaticii sociale încadrează întrebările pentru a dezvolta o înţelegere analitică a impactului TI în viaţa socială. Câteva idei-cheie ale informaticii sociale 5. Ce influenţă are contextul social: Reţelele Intranet în acţiune Un mod de a ilustra o abordare contextuală a tehnologiei informaţiei în viaţa socială este discutarea anumitor studii asupra modului în dr ph phil internet dating firmele de consultanţă au adoptat şi utilizat sistemele informatice documentare.

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În o firmă importantă de consultanţă, Price Waterhouse, a cumpărat Price Waterhouse este o firmă de consultanţă internaţională cu zeci de mii de angajaţi în toată lumea, peste Era preocupat că firma sa, având mii de consultanţi în diferite birouri în toată America de Nord, lucrează la probleme similare şi rareori îşi împărtăşesc cunoştinţele. Au fost cazuri în care o echipă de consultanţă din Boston se confrunta cu acelaşi tip de probleme ca şi una din Toronto sau San Francisco, fără să există un mod simplu de comunicare a cunoştinţelor dobândite în chestiunea respectivă.

S-a pus atunci întrebarea: Ar putea consultanţii firmei care nu lucrează în acelaşi birou să folosească un anumit tip de sistem de comunicare şi dr ph phil internet dating a informaţiilor ca să stocheze ceea ce ştiu şi să pună aceste cunoştinţe în comun cu ceilalţi Primii testaţi au fost cei din domeniul tehnologiei informaţiilor. Aceştia erau înclinaţi să folosească sistemul Notes; îl considerau interesant şi de altfel l-au folosit destul de agresiv pentru a schimba informaţii despre proiectele la care lucrau.

Consultanţii pe probleme de impozite ai firmei Price Waterhouse din Washington erau un alt grup care utiliza Lotus Notes Mehler, Aceştia studiau comportamentul Serviciului de Venituri Interne Fiscul şi Congresului SUA şi diseminau sfaturi referitoare Ia impozite către birourile Price Waterhouse din toată ţara despre modificările din legislaţia referitoare la impozite care le puteau afecta clienţii. Ei au fost cei care au folosit cel mai mult Lotus Notes pentru a difuza sfaturi referitoare la impozite.

Consultanţii firmei răspândiţi în birourile din toată ţara trebuiau să devină principalii utilizatori ai Lotus Notes. Vice-preşedintele cu probleme de tehnologia informaţiei considera că Notes este un sistem atât de revoluţionar încât oamenii nici nu trebuiau să fie instruiţi cu privire la utilizarea sa.

Earthbag Building Guide

Consultanţilor trebuia să li se dea doar ocazia de a-l utiliza şi vor învăţa din mers cum să-l folosească în moduri creative. Orlikowski Orlikowski, a constatat că partenerii din firmă, consultanţii din posturi înalte, îl foloseau destul de puţin.

Consultanţii mai tineri, denumiţi asociaţi, care erau mai numeroşi, îl utilizau în şi mai mică măsură. As regards the increase of the protection level for all cultural goods, the following issues must be considered: the security and protection measures of cultural sites, the way EU Member States enforce the European Directive on the protection of cultural heritage and the restitution of stolen goods, the enforcement of the UNIDROIT Convention, the organization of specialized structures of the Judicial Police, as well as the use of international judicial assistance for the recovery of cultural goods.

According to European Commission documents, the material and immaterial heritage from Europe is our common wealth, our legacy from previous generations of Europeans passed on to future generations. The TFEU also recognizes the importance of preserving cultural diversity, as well as the necessity to ensure the protection of its heritage within the common market.

For the purpose of protecting certain cultural goods pertaining to national heritage, Article 36 of the consolidated version of the TFEU allows prohibitions or restrictions to be established on imports, exports or goods in transit. Both legislation and doctrine distinguish the following four national cultural heritage fields: immovable heritage historical monumentsarchaeological heritage, movable Augustin Lazăr heritage and immaterial heritage.

To traffick in and launder cultural artifacts are criminal activities which require energetic reactions on the part of competent authorities, dr ph phil internet dating on a national and European level. Final decision against a criminal group in archaeological poaching On 17 Decemberthe High Court of Cassation and Justice of Romania sentenced 11 defendants for criminal association and aggravated theft of cultural property to sentences cumulating 45 years of imprisonment2.

The Court found, inter alia, that between May and Maythe defendants associated with a criminal group carried out detections and unauthorized excavations in the archaeological site Sarmizegetusa Regia, classified as a UNESCO monument.

The criminal group stole two hoards containing 15 spiraling gold bracelets about 15 kilogramswhich were illegally exported and sold in auction houses in the EU and the US Ciută and Rustoiu See Fig.

They are thus described: […]The coins of Pharnakes II and Asander were found with the anonymous Staters struck in the name of Lysimachus. We have this information not only from people who are in a position to know, but also through microscopic examination of the encrustation on a coin of Asander Illicit Trafficking in South East Europe as Archon, and există abilități bazate pe potrivire în negru ops 2 Brutus gold staters struck in the name of Lysimachus.

The lime encrustation on all of these coins is the same. It is off-white in color with black flecks that can only be seen under high magnification. These characteristics, especially the black flecks, are an important individual characteristic which is peculiar to this group, thus tying them to the same hoard Berk Gold undated.

Modi operandi specific to crimes in the field dr ph phil internet dating national cultural heritage Statistical analysis revealed that the most frequent crimes against national cultural heritage are: artwork theft, archaeological and religious goods theft, the destruction of movable and immovable cultural goods, unauthorized detections or diggings in archaeological sites, illegal export operations of movable cultural goods.

Specialized analyses of thefts reveal that the modi operandi methods most frequently used by criminals are the following: breaking doors and security systems, breaking and escalating windows, cutting bars, using forged keys, distracting the attention of the personnel hired to ensure the security of cultural goods Lazăr and Condruz These acts are performed by specialized groups, organized in criminal associations, using state-of-the-art detection equipment, sport utility vehicles, radio communications, watchdogs and even guns.

These groups are also in contact with international networks of traffickers from Romania, Serbia, Germany, Italy among Augustin Lazăr other countries which illegally remove the looted cultural goods from Romania and place them onto the black market, through illegal transactions to certain collectors from EU States or from the USA.

Poachers are particularly interested in the sites of Dacian citadels and Roman camps from the area of the Orăştie Mountains located in the counties of Hunedoara and Alba, and those from other counties together with Greek citadels such as Olt, Teleorman, Tulcea, Constanţa as well as Caraş-Severin, Timiş, Bihor, Bistriţa-Năsăud and Sălaj. These sites have often been targeted by whole teams of poachers who engaged in unauthorized detections and diggings and stole thousands of objects.

Thieves are particularly interested in monetary treasures, jewelry, funeral artifacts, guns and military equipment swords, helmets, shields, clasps, etc.

Woman Meets Man She Believes She’s Been Speaking With Online For First Time

Information on the location of archaeological sites that are rich in artifacts may be often found on ordinary Internet sites, and also in specialized books on archaeological sites written by researchers. These reports and books have been found upon conducting home and vehicle searches of the network members. Occasional artifact finds in these areas triggered an interest in illegal searches in the viena dating 2021 of getting rich while there was minimal risk of punishment by the authorities.

They also know how to approach the locals, gather information on the areas where occasional finds took place, and identify the locations rich in archaeological vestiges and the channels for the illegal capitalization of artifacts.

Criminal prosecution cases in recent years confirm the observations made in specialized literature Deppert-Lippitz 8. These intermediaries are fully aware of the factual situation on-site, they know how to evaluate the trading potential of the artifacts dr ph phil internet dating and they have close relationships with certain local authority representatives to make the latter depend on them and promote their interests through blackmail.

Uncovered and stolen artifacts are usually deposited in safe hideouts located in forests, mountain chalets, etc. Upon examining and consulting various catalogues of different auction houses, the intermediary decides whether or not to contact the higher rank representative of the network or the higher regional or international intermediary — depending on the value dr ph phil internet dating the cultural objects.

The meeting is usually organized at a halfway location that has already been checked: a boarding house, a motel, etc. Transport is secured by individuals designated by the intermediaries from among the poachers. The treasure is divided and moved separately in order to avoid any risk of total loss.

Whether they buy the objects or take them under consignment, the agent or intermediary trader is considered to be the last pawn on the illegal supply market and the first on the legal sale market.

These intermediaries are also connected with the owners of art galleries or with the traders known on the sale market. The Dacian treasures originating from archaeological sites in the Orăștie Mountains koson coins, spiral-shaped golden bracelets, etc. They followed the same itineraries: from the sites of origin to the intermediate area in Central Europe, to European and American auction houses, where they emerged shortly after having been stolen.

It is interesting to note that the firms that accepted to sell these objects eventually became top leaders in the antiques market over the last 15 years. The trader whose country of origin possesses an art market does not usually risk getting involved in illegal export from the country of origin.

If the risk is taken through his personal contacts and a sound knowledge of the mentality and language of the country, the discovery of this first criminal act will rapidly lead to the end of his trading activity. Under these circumstances, the buyer is aware of the risk taken and may claim that the artifact price should be brought down.

The risk of a request for repatriation increases on a pro rata basis with the price of the artifacts, as Augustin Lazăr it includes care este kevin jonas dating artistic quality, rare nature and cultural importance.

In our analysis of the issue related to antique laundering that purposes to create an appearance of legality, we find similarities with the judicial practice in the field of fighting money laundering. The characteristic point, and details of the perpetration that may be noted through the observation of the criminal itinerary.

With respect to the traffic in antiquities, these elements may appear upon careful examination of the circuit of acts, merchandise and payment methods, of the sequence and logic of the operations performed by traffickers, of the authenticity of documents, securities, etc. It leaves verifiable tracks. The development of e-trade provided an evolved modus operandi to the networks of traffickers, which trade in cultural goods without a known legal origin.

Internet sites allow them to perform operations without giving any details to their customers on the origin of the traded goods, with a very low degree of control by site administrators, thus ensuring an increased chance of preserving their anonymity.

Web investigations highlighted the fact that a large number of heritage goods is sold on eBay, e. The most frequent sale method is the auction, whereby the seller can conceal the eBay identity of the auctioneer who, under the circumstances, does not know who their trading partners are.

Augustin Lazar F. Desmarais Ed. A track we have yet to map clearly.

Payments are made Illicit Trafficking in South East Europe as indicated by the seller, either through PayPal involving an electronic money transfer from buyer account seller account, or through the money order system, which allows for the money to be collected from any bank, as does a bearer check. Fast electronic trades offer the possibility to move large quantities of archaeological goods through auctions and to obtain significant amounts of money, resulting from their sale.

Site administrators waive any responsibility regarding the reliability of the trades concluded on eBay and users are personally liable for all the aspects related to the accurate description of the object, its dispatch to the buyer, without any obligation whatsoever to inform any authority in connection with the provenience or ownership of the sold goods.

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The criminal investigation practice for transactions concerning looted artifacts revealed a skilled modus operandi, which aims at hiding the criminal origin of the sold goods by laundering it. Thus, the laundering of dirty money goes alongside the laundering of looted artifacts and this becomes past laundering.

The perpetrator may be a Romanian citizen, or a business administrator of a company headquartered in the United Kingdom and in the USA for instance. Following the same cautious method of operation, sellers put on sale large treasures which are divided into tens or hundreds of pieces at each auction, this way trying to avoid endangering the entire treasure. In this case, the perpetrators who were members of a poaching team from the Orăştie Mountains offered for sale coins each to the National History Museum of Romania and the National Bank of Romania.

These correspond to pieces of a stolen treasure of 3, Koson golden coins that originates from the archaeological site Sarmizegetusa Regia.

Kling, prof. Mitzi Lewinson, pentru permisiunea publicării în limba română a acestui articol 1. Informatica socială este un domeniu care se defineşte prin conţinutul său şi întrebări fundamentale asupra acestuia mai degrabă decât printr-un set de tehnici şi metode, foarte asemănător cu studiile urbane sau gerontologia. De 25 de ani informatica socială este obiect de cercetare sistematică, analitică şi critică, dezvoltând teorii care sunt pertinente pentru înţelegerea proiectării, dezvoltării şi operării sistemelor informatice, incluzând reţele intranet, forumuri electronice, biblioteci virtuale şi publicaţii electronice.

They were represented as inherited from their predecessors. The artifact is then only sold to the auctioneer when such price is offered. Otherwise, the piece is to be re-auctioned later on. Similar modi operandi have been identified by the researchers in this field in: Italy, Greece, Serbia, Macedonia, Bulgaria, etc. Ferri et al. Regulatory framework in the field of national cultural heritage After the evaluation of the criminal phenomenon and the capacity of judicial bodies to respond, the research was consolidated as a practical strike back solution into a methodology for investigating crimes specific to this field.

This meant turning Augustin Lazăr to specialized operative units task-forcesled by a prosecutor specialized in field counselling and whose research is oriented in accordance with specific methodological guidelines Lazăr The office is organized according to field regulations, seeking to prevent and fight against all illegal actions in the field of cultural heritage. Sanctioned by article C. Dr Hanna currently documents looting in Egypt, which since the uprising has become increasingly acute.

She works as an archaeologist specializing in the protection of cultural heritage and has been involved in various archaeological fieldwork projects for over 19 years. She has curated museum exhibits and published on damage to archaeological sites in Iraq and Syria.

Her research combines archaeology, remote sensing, and cultural heritage policy. Dr Hanson received her Ph. He researches the illicit trade in antiquities; the destruction of cultural property; propaganda; the law, ethics, politics and economics of cultural heritage labour. His work focuses on the inter-relations between antiquities trafficking, cultural destruction and political violence in the Cyprus conflict and the Syrian civil war; the global trade in antiquities and open data analysis.

He is the current director of the Département des recherches archéologiques subaquatiques et sous-marines DRASSM and has supervised underwater archeological searches on more than shipwrecks in French and international seas.

Illicit Traffiking in Cultural Goods in South East Europe: Fiat Lux

Her area of research focuses on the ancestors of the Native Americans of northeastern North America. Inhe became a member of the committee designated by the Prime Minister for restructuring the Directorate General of Antiquities. Star items in these collections include the Oxus Treasure, the Cyrus cylinder, Sasanian silver dishes, and antiquities from ancient South Arabia.

He has a D. He has excavated extensively in the Middle East and Central Asia, including sites of all periods from prehistoric to recent times. Guy Tubiana is a reserve police force commander and serves as a museum security expert for the French Ministry of Culture.

He takes part in counseling museum professionals on security issues and implementing security measures in French museums, supervises museum security high-profile exhibitions of French collections abroad. He also trains security professionals and works as a consultant and international expert in the Art field during periods of military reserve. Her research broadly focuses on social aspects of antiquities trafficking, art crime, and related cultural property issues.

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Yates has recently held a Leverhulme Fellowship and a Core Fulbright Award to study the on- the-ground effects of high-level cultural policy in Latin America and her current work involves security for and protection of sacred art in Latin America and South Asia.

Her research and other open research materials can be found on a collection of websites, including traffickingculture. He studied literature, philosophy and art history.

Illicit Traffiking in Cultural Goods in South East Europe: Fiat Lux

He lived a couple of years in Washington D. C and Brussels, worked in many different countries, especially in North and South America. He writes for newspapers, magazines, and the German public radio and is the author of numerous books travel-guides, biographies, non-fiction for children.

Most recently, in Augusthis book Das schmutzige Geschäft mit der Antike. The primary aim therein is to analyze the tried case in the broader context of illicit trafficking of cultural goods coming from South East Europe. The categories of participants in the illicit trafficking of cultural goods, which made the object of illicit trafficking as well as the international judicial cooperation actions undertaken for their recovery, will be successively examined: the numele online dating operandi used for money and artifact laundering, illicit trafficking pathways, stolen Romanian hoards.

As regards the increase of the protection level for all cultural goods, the following issues must be considered: the security and protection measures of cultural sites, the way EU Member States enforce the European Directive on the protection of cultural heritage and the restitution of stolen goods, the enforcement of the UNIDROIT Convention, the organization of specialized structures of the Judicial Police, as well as the use of international judicial assistance for the recovery of cultural goods.

According to European Commission documents, the material and immaterial heritage from Europe is our common wealth, our legacy from previous generations of Europeans passed on to future generations.

The TFEU also recognizes the importance of preserving cultural diversity, as well as the necessity to ensure the protection of its heritage within the common market.

For the purpose of protecting certain cultural dr ph phil internet dating pertaining to national heritage, Article 36 of the consolidated version of the TFEU allows prohibitions or restrictions to be established on imports, exports or goods in transit.

Both legislation and doctrine distinguish the following four national cultural heritage fields: immovable heritage historical monumentsarchaeological heritage, movable Augustin Lazăr heritage and immaterial heritage. To traffick in and launder cultural artifacts are criminal activities which require energetic reactions on the part of competent authorities, both on a national and European level. Final decision against a criminal group in archaeological poaching On 17 Decemberthe High Court of Cassation and Justice of Romania sentenced 11 defendants for criminal association and aggravated theft of cultural property to sentences cumulating 45 years of imprisonment2.

The Court found, care este regula de vârstă din florida alia, that between May and Maythe defendants associated with a criminal group carried out detections and unauthorized excavations in the archaeological site Sarmizegetusa Regia, classified as a UNESCO monument.

The criminal group stole two hoards containing 15 spiraling gold bracelets about 15 kilogramswhich were illegally exported and sold in auction houses in the EU and the US Ciută and Rustoiu See Fig. They are thus described: […]The coins of Pharnakes II and Asander were found with the anonymous Staters struck in the name of Lysimachus. We have this information not only from people who are in a position to know, but also through microscopic examination of the encrustation on a coin of Asander Illicit Trafficking in South East Europe as Archon, and numerous Brutus gold staters struck in the name of Lysimachus.

The lime encrustation on all of these coins is the same. It is off-white in color with black flecks that can only be seen under high magnification. These characteristics, especially the black flecks, are an important individual characteristic which is peculiar to this group, thus tying them to the same hoard Berk Gold undated.

Modi operandi specific to crimes in the field of national cultural heritage Statistical analysis revealed that the most frequent crimes against national cultural heritage are: artwork theft, archaeological and religious goods theft, the destruction of movable and immovable cultural goods, unauthorized detections or diggings in archaeological sites, illegal export operations of movable cultural goods.

Specialized analyses of thefts reveal that the modi operandi methods most frequently used by criminals are the following: breaking doors and security systems, breaking and escalating windows, cutting bars, using forged keys, distracting the attention of the personnel hired to ensure the security of cultural goods Lazăr and Condruz These acts are performed by specialized groups, organized in criminal associations, using state-of-the-art detection equipment, sport utility vehicles, radio communications, watchdogs and even guns.

These groups are also in contact with international networks of traffickers from Romania, Serbia, Germany, Italy among Augustin Lazăr other countries which illegally remove the looted cultural goods from Romania and place them onto the black market, through illegal transactions to certain collectors from EU States or from the USA. Poachers are particularly interested in the sites of Dacian citadels and Roman camps from the area of the Orăştie Mountains located in the counties of Hunedoara and Alba, and those from dr ph phil internet dating counties together with Greek citadels such as Olt, Teleorman, Tulcea, Constanţa as well as Caraş-Severin, Timiş, Bihor, Bistriţa-Năsăud and Sălaj.

These sites have often been targeted by whole teams of poachers who engaged in unauthorized detections and diggings and stole thousands of objects. Thieves are particularly interested in monetary treasures, jewelry, funeral artifacts, guns and military equipment swords, helmets, shields, clasps, etc. Information on the location of archaeological sites that are rich in artifacts may be often found on ordinary Internet sites, and also in specialized books on archaeological sites written by researchers.

These reports and books have been found upon conducting home and vehicle searches of the network members. Occasional artifact finds in these areas triggered an interest in illegal searches in the hope of getting rich while there was minimal risk of punishment by the authorities.

They also know how to approach the locals, gather information on the areas where occasional finds took place, and identify the locations rich in archaeological vestiges and the channels for the illegal capitalization of artifacts. Criminal prosecution cases in recent years confirm the observations made in specialized literature Deppert-Lippitz 8.

These intermediaries are fully aware of the factual situation on-site, they know how to evaluate the trading potential of the artifacts found and they have close relationships with certain local authority representatives to make the latter depend on them and promote their interests through blackmail. Uncovered and stolen artifacts are usually deposited in safe hideouts located in forests, mountain chalets, etc.

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Upon examining and consulting various catalogues of different auction houses, the intermediary decides whether or not to contact the higher rank representative of the network or the higher regional or international intermediary — depending on the value of the cultural objects. The meeting is usually organized at a halfway location that has already been checked: a boarding house, a motel, etc. Transport is secured by individuals designated by the intermediaries from among the poachers.

The treasure is divided and moved separately in order to avoid any risk of total loss. Whether they buy the objects or take them under consignment, the agent or intermediary trader is considered to be the last pawn on the illegal supply market and the first on the legal sale market.

These intermediaries are also connected with the owners of art galleries or with the traders known on the sale market. The Dacian treasures originating from archaeological sites in the Orăștie Mountains koson coins, spiral-shaped golden bracelets, etc.

They followed the same itineraries: from the sites of origin to the intermediate area in Central Europe, to European and American auction houses, where they emerged shortly after having been stolen. It is interesting to note that the firms that accepted to sell these objects eventually became top leaders in the antiques market over the last 15 years. The trader whose country of origin possesses an art market does not usually risk getting involved in illegal export from the country of origin.

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If the risk is taken through his personal contacts and a sound knowledge of the mentality and language of the country, the discovery of this first criminal act will rapidly lead to the end of his trading activity. Under these circumstances, the buyer is aware of the risk taken and may claim that the artifact price should be brought down. The risk of a request for repatriation increases on a pro rata basis with the price of the artifacts, as Augustin Lazăr it includes its artistic quality, rare nature and cultural importance.